The effect of structural properties of natural silica precursors in the mesoporogen-free synthesis of hierarchical ZSM-5 below 100 °C
Advanced Powder Technology

The low-temperature synthesis of zeolite ZSM-5 below 100 °C is gaining new attention. This is due to the fact that such synthesis may simultaneously implement the introduction of mesopores into crystalline microporous zeolite structure. Herein, we report the use of natural silica precursors from rice husks in the mesoporogen-free synthesis of hierarchical ZSM-5 below 100 °C and their structural properties which govern the course of crystallization. Rice husks are agricultural wastes with high silica content, which should be exploited to give a positive impact, i.e. highly value-added materials. In this study, the amorphous silica from rice husks was extracted using sequential base-acid treatment. The extracted silica was similarly reactive as Ludox HS-40, even with the reduced amounts of the organic structure-directing agent (OSDA). The product was highly crystalline ZSM-5 with spherical morphology composed of small crystallites, enabling the presence of intercrystallite mesopores. The subjection of extracted silica into the calcination at 550 °C for 6 h, prior to the low-temperature synthesis, altered the silica structure via hydroxyl condensation. The distinct structural properties affected the occurring crystallization in which the resulted products were ZSM-5–disordered-mesoporous silica composites. The possible mechanisms of these two different results may involve the dual roles of tetrapropylammonium ion (TPA+) as zeolite OSDA and non-templating structure directing agent. These insights were based on the spectroscopic (FTIR, Raman, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy), microscopic (TEM and HRTEM) and physicochemical characterizations (XRD and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm).
Dosen Peneliti: Dr. Rino R. Mukti, Dr. Veinardi Suendo